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  Volume No. 11 Issue No. 2 February 2014  

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Pet Care
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Dr. Jim Humphries
  Bordetella ... the misunderstood vaccine
  By Dr. Jim Humphries
  Veterinarian

   Whether you refer to it as “kennel cough” or more properly “infectious tracheobronchitis,” many people are unaware of how common this illness really is. In fact, many pet owners often refuse to vaccinate their dogs for this disease. So, how can a Bordetella vaccine be helpful, even if your pet is never boarded?
   
   It’s a commonly heard in many veterinary hospitals: “We don’t need the kennel cough vaccination … we never board or kennel our dog.” Despite the owner’s insistence that their pet isn’t at risk, most people would be surprised to find out that this disease can be found in a wide variety of places.
   
   “Kennel cough” is a communicable bronchitis in dogs that is often found anywhere dogs congregate. Naturally, boarding kennels come to mind, but quite often, people will forget that grooming salons, dog parks, pet superstores or even their favorite veterinary hospital can also be potential sources of infection.
   
   Dogs who contract tracheobronchitis will produce a rough, hacking cough that many owners will describe as the pet trying to cough something up or even retch. Spasms or coughing fits are not uncommon and some people relate that their pets seem worse at night.
   
   Kennel cough can be caused by a wide variety of organisms, including canine adenoviruses, canine distemper virus and a bacterial species that goes by the name of Bordetella bronchiseptica. Other viruses such as canine herpesviruses or reoviruses are also thought to contribute to the disease, and it is not uncommon to see more than one pathogen involved.
   
   Infected dogs will spread viruses or bacteria through airborne particles, where healthy dogs can inhale them. In some cases, the germs can also spread via toys or food dishes. Dogs that are exposed will generally show signs of illness within two to 14 days and may act sick for an additional two weeks. In many cases, the disease is very mild and your pup may never run a fever or act as if anything is wrong. However, this is a disease that can progress to pneumonia and become life-threatening.
   
   What’s even worse is that a pet who has recovered from this illness could potentially infect other dogs for up to two or three months! So, that normal looking dog at the busy city dog park could, in fact, be sharing some nasty germs as he plays with his doggie pals!
   
   Like many diseases we see in pets, proactive prevention is the key to stopping kennel cough. Most dogs will receive vaccinations against canine adenoviruses and parainfluenza when they receive their canine distemper and canine parvovirus vaccines. In addition, Bordetella vaccination is available and can help limit the severity of the illness if your pet is ever exposed to this bacterium.
   
   The Bordetella vaccine is considered to be a “non-core” vaccine by the American Animal Hospital Association. This means that not all pets need this vaccination, but the choice to vaccinate should be based on the pet’s risk factors. As mentioned above, if your pet is routinely groomed, enjoys trips to the local dog park or even gets to go shopping with you at the big box pet food store, he is likely being exposed to the agents that cause kennel cough.
   
   Vaccination against the Bordetella bacterium will generally provide immunity for about one year. So, pets at risk will need annual boosters and some pets who board frequently or visit grooming salons regularly may actually benefit from re-vaccination every six months. Experts also recommend getting your pet a booster vaccination five days or more prior to possible exposure, if more than six months have passed since the last vaccination.
   
   If your pet is dealing with any sort of cough, the best advice on treatment will come from your veterinarian. Although antibiotics may or may not be prescribed, your pet could receive a cough suppressant or even a recommendation to let the dog stand in the bathroom while you shower! Just like with kids, the warm, humid air in the bathroom can loosen congestion and help your pet breathe more easily.
   
   Dr. Jim Humphries is a house call veterinarian in Falcon. He also serves as a visiting Professor at the College of Veterinary Medicine at Texas A&M University. He lives in Falcon with his wife, horses and Great Danes. http://www.MobilePetDocs.com.


 
  

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